How do solar battery work?

18.01.2016 - by Admin

The sun provides an abundant energy source and does not produce carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, the development of solar energy industry is being promoted in a lot of Countries. So what is a solar battery and works? 

 

Solar battery (solar/photovoltaic) are devices that help direct conversion of sunlight energy (solar energy) into electrical energy (power) based on the photoelectric effect. Photoelectric effect is the ability to emit electron (electron) when the light shines on the ­­­­­­­material.­­­­­­

 

Silicon is known to be a semiconductor. “Semiconductors are materials intermediate between conductors and insulators. Semiconductors act as an insulator at low temperature and conductivity at room temperature”, making it a key ingredient in solar cells.

 

Sunlight is composed of miniscule particles called photons, which radiate from the sun. When collisions with atoms of silicon solar cells, the photons transfer their energy to electrons scattering electrons, they are stimulated to make electrons dislodge out of atoms, while in atomic appear blank due to lack of electrons.

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The image of panels solar

 

 Freeing up electrons is however only half the work of a solar cell, it then needs to herd these stray electrons into an electric current. This involves creating an electrical imbalance within the cell, which acts a bit like a slope down which the electrons will flow in the same direction.

 

Creating this imbalance is made possible by the internal organisation of silicon. Silicon atoms are arranged together in a tightly bound structure. By squeezing small quantities of other elements into this structure, two different types of silicon are created: n-type and p-type.

 

When these two materials are placed side by side inside a solar cell, the n-type silicon’s spare electrons jump over to fill the gaps in the p-type silicon. This means that the n-type silicon becomes positively charged, and the p-type silicon is negatively charged, creating an electric field across the cell. Because silicon is a semi-conductor, it can act like an insulator, maintaining this imbalance.

 

As the photons smash the electrons off the silicon atoms, this field drives them along in an orderly manner, providing the electric current to power calculators, satellites and everything in between.

 

Source: physics.org

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